Emulsifier in chocolate


How is the different function of lecithin and PGPR in chocolate?

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  1. TheRiceBowl.asia
    January 14, 2016 at 2:02 pm

    Comparisons of Soy Lecithin and PGPR functions in Chocolate Applications:-


    Soy Lecithin PGPR (polyglycerol polyricionleate)
    • When chocolate without lecithin is heated, a marked increase in viscosity occurs above a certain temperature (critical temperature for dark chocolate is about 90°C and a large increase in viscosity occurs at around 60°C).


    • When lecithin is added, higher temperatures are possible without changes in viscosity. 
      • The tempering of chocolate ensures the development of stable cocoa butter crystals within the liquefied chocolate.


    • The addition of lecithin brings a change in tempering conditions to slightly lower temperatures.


    • Lecithin improves bloom resistance, gloss and latitude in handling tempered chocolate.
    • PGPR acts as a viscosity modifier in chocolate products.


    • The addition of PGPR decreases yield value and improves the flow properties and handling of chocolate for coating, moulding and block chocolate production.


    • It decreases the risks of defects such as air bubbles in finished products.


    • Use of PGPR aids towards faster seed-forming and shorter crystallization times.


    • PGPR allows cocoa butter reductions which benefits low fat chocolate production.




    PGPR also has a synergistic effect with lecithin which has a beneficial influence on plastic viscosity. Schantz and Rohm (2005) demonstrated the effects of different and varied mixtures of lecithin and polyglycerol polyricinoleate (PGPR) on the flow parameters of melted chocolate in order to obtain the optimum emulsifier blend.




    • Stroppa, V. L. Z., Ribeiro, A. P. B., Luccas, V., Grimaldi, R., Gonçalves, L. A. G., & Kieckbusch, T. G. (2014). Influence of soy lecithin and PGPR levels in chocolate crystallization behavior. Paper presented at the International Congress on Engineering and Food.

    • Saltmarsh, M. & Barlow, S. (2013). Essential Guide to Food Additives (p. 208). Cambridge: The Royal Society of Chemistry.

    • Minifie, B. (2012). Chocolate, Cocoa and Confectionery: Science and Technology (pp. 111-127). US: Springer Science & Business Media.

    • Gerard, L. H. & Richard, W. H. (2008). Food Emulsifiers and Their Applications (pp. 285-299). US: Springer Science & Business Media.

    • Schantz, B. & Rohm, H. (2005). Influence of lecithin–PGPR blends on the rheological properties of chocolate. LWT – Food Science and Technology, 38(1),  41-45.

    • Schantz, B., Linke, L. & Rohm, H. (2003). Effects of Different Emulsifiers On Rheological And Physical Properties Of Chocolate (pp. 329-333). Paper presented at the 3rd International Symposium on Food Rheology and Structure.

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