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Bread improver is a blend of coherent, balanced combination of baking ingredients that can be added to wheat flour and dough to assist and improve the overall dough behaviour and final bread quality (Cauvain, 2017). Appropriate formulation of bread improver will result in a lighter loaf with better textual properties and better keeping qualities (Laucke Flour Mills, n. d.).
It is made up of food ingredients (cereal products such as starch or malt, different sugars, dairy products such as powdered milk, soy flour) with or without additives (preservatives, fruit acids, phosphate, thickening agents), and varies depending on different applications. Commonly, the ingredients used in bread improvers are usually also part of the components from the food products (Wassermann, 2009).
For rye dough, addition of acid to the dough can avoid producing bread with weak crumbs, inelastic and low chewability. The acidifiers mainly consist of lactic, acetic, citric acids or acidic phosphates (Wassermann, 2009).
There are 5 types of elements that are used as ingredients in bread improver. Those are reducing agents, oxidants, enzymes, emulsifiers and various ingredients with specific effects such as hydrocolloids (Lesaffre, n. d.).
-Reduce mixing time and improve dough machinability
-Promote the formation of disulphite cross-links from free sulphydryl (– SH) groups.
-Strengthen gluten for optimal gas retention
-With the formation of dextrins and sugars during the enzymatic degradation of starch, they give rise to the browning effect during baking and develop the typical bread flavour as a result of the reaction between these ingredients and other dough components.
-Xylanase: Increase dough strength and improve dough processability
-Protease: Improves extensibility of dough by gluten degradation
-Lipoxygenase: Lipid oxidation present in the dough; brightens the crumb (through oxidation of yellow carotenoids) of toast bread
-Makes the dough less susceptible to mechanical stress during dividing, moulding and handling
-Increase proofing stability as well as oven spring
-Monoglycerides of fatty acids: prevent the recrystallization of starch (retrogradation) in the finished baked good where retrogradation is main cause of staling
-Hydrocolloids absorb water during dough preparation making the doughs much drier and more easily processed
-The increased moisture contributes to optimum starch gelatinisation which also improves the fresh keeping properties
(Haegens, n. d.; Wassermann, 2009; Lesaffre, n. d.)
In particular, bread improvers can be formulated differently based on products to be used in or the intended production method. Improvers are generally used at an amount of not more than 10% calculated on flour, while the optimum amount of components alter accordingly to the types of products. Commercially, they available as powder, in granular form or as liquid and paste (Wassermann, 2009).
The application for bread improvers can be classified into following groups as below:-